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HIV: The Basics

HIV: The Basics

A concise explanation of HIV/AIDS

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a retrovirus that can be transmitted between people by unsafe sexual contact, if at least one person is infected with HIV. In infected humans, the HIV-virus enters cells that express the cell surface protein CD4 and co-receptors CCR5 and/or CXCR4. When this virus enters the cell, it converts the genetic information of HIV (or RNA) into DNA with reverse transcriptase. The DNA is then incorporated in the host cell’s chromosome and can subsequently be replicated and used to make viral proteins (see figure below). When there are enough copies of the virus, the host cell bursts open releasing the viruses to find new host cells and the host cell dies.

hiv, aids, cells, autoimmune, CXCR4, viral infection, CD4, CD5

The most common victim of HIV is the CD4 T cell and the number of these cells decline during HIV infection. Because CD4 T cells are essential for the functioning of the immune system, this decline is the main reason for the weakened immune system of the HIV-patients. As a consequence, late-stage HIV-patients are susceptible to infections that are harmless in healthy humans. The most advanced stages of HIV-infection are generally known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).

Symptoms

The first symptoms occur shortly after the HIV-infection. Patients usually display symptoms like a sore throat, fever and a blotchy red rash. These early symptoms last up to three weeks and are commonly diagnosed as flu or a mild viral infection. After that, the HIV-infection can stay without symptoms for many years before the patient’s immune system will start to get significantly weaker. Common symptoms of a more advanced HIV-infection and AIDS are swollen lymph nodes, recurring herpes and weight loss.

Prevention and treatment

To prevent HIV infection from entering the AIDS stage, quick diagnosis and adequate treatment is needed. New diagnostic tools are able to detect HIV a month after infection, even before the patient expresses HIV-specific symptoms. If an infection is picked up on early, the doctor will regularly check the CD4 T cell count in the blood. One of the common treatments is the so-called antiretroviral therapy (ART). This therapy prevents common symptoms of HIV by slowing down the replication of the HIV virus.

Read the interview with Prof. Mancini about improving HIV treatment with computer simulation.

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22 Comments

  • wilson
    November 30, 2017, 20:22

    Thanks to dr.Azen for his good work I never believe that HIV has cure, I
    was HIV poshat he can’t cure HIV I just decided to give it a try I contact him that
    night luckily to me he replied me, but I don’t believe him I thought it was
    a scam but I still hold on to see the work of Dr Azen if he is saying the
    truth itive over 3 year now before I came across a comment about how
    dr.Azen cure HIV and herpes disease but when I saw it i have it in mind
    the ask for some details about me i gave him all he needed and I
    waited to see his reply to my problem after I have taken the herbal he told me to go for check up and I went for HIV test I cant believe I was negative,am so happy and
    grateful to God for using Dr Azen to cure me, that is the reason why i
    decided to write this wonderful testimony of how i was cured, i recommend
    Dr.Azen to you all around the world,contact him on his Email Dr. Azenherbalcure02@gmail.com or you can also reach him through WhatsApp number +234810 691 7688
    dr.Azen for helping me at this young age if you need help contact,
    He can also cure so many sickness like
    (1) herpes(2) hiv(3) als(4) dick enlargement(5) hepatitis B(6) ALOPECIA(7) CANCER,(8) DIABETES,(9) HERPES CURE(10) GETTING YOUR LOVER OR HUSBAND BACK(11) IMPOTENCE,(12) BARENESS/INFERTILITY(13) DIARRHE (14) ASTHMA

    REPLY
  • wilson
    December 1, 2017, 00:24

    Thanks to dr.Azen for his good work I never believe that HIV has cure, I
    was HIV positive over 3 year now before I came across a comment about how
    dr.Azen cure HIV and herpes disease but when I saw it i have it in mind
    that he can’t cure HIV I just decided to give it a try I contact him that
    night luckily to me he replied me, but I don’t believe him I thought it was
    a scam but I still hold on to see the work of Dr Azen if he is saying the
    truth he ask for some details about me i gave him all he needed and I
    waited to see his reply to my problem after I have taken the herbal he told me to go for check up and I went for HIV test I cant believe I was negative,am so happy and
    grateful to God for using Dr Azen to cure me, that is the reason why i
    decided to write this wonderful testimony of how i was cured, i recommend
    Dr.Azen to you all around the world,contact him on his Email Dr. Azenherbalcure02@gmail.com or you can also reach him through WhatsApp number +234810 691 7688
    dr.Azen for helping me at this young age if you need help contact,
    He can also cure so many sickness like
    (1) herpes(2) hiv(3) als(4) dick enlargement(5) hepatitis B(6) ALOPECIA(7) CANCER,(8) DIABETES,(9) HERPES CURE(10) GETTING YOUR LOVER OR HUSBAND BACK(11) IMPOTENCE,(12) BARENESS/INFERTILITY(13) DIARRHE (14) ASTHMA

    REPLY
  • […] What would happen if we could predict the dynamics of viral infections, such as HIV, in human subjects? Similarly, what would happen if we could model the behavior of the host’s immune system and the effect of therapy? A new groundbreaking computational model might be able to do just that. Using this model could change the contemporary view on viral infections and how one should treat them. If you first want to read up on HIV/AIDS, read this background article. […]

    REPLY
  • Rose
    December 2, 2017, 14:56

    i am Rose from UNITED STATES i was diagnosed with HIV/AIDS for over 12 years which made loose my job and my relationship with my fiance after he discovered that i was having HIV, he departed from me i tried all my best to make him stays with me, but neglected me until a friend of mine on Facebook from Singapore told me Great healer, who will restore my life back with his powerful healing spell, he sent me the email address to contact and i quickly contacted him, and he said my condition can solved, that he will treat the disease immediately only if i can accept trust him and accept his terms and condition, i Agreed because i was so much in need of help by all means, so i did all he want from me and surprisingly on Sunday last week He sent me a text, that i should hurry up to the hospital for a checkup, which i truly did, i confirm from my doctor that i am now ( HIV NEGATIVE) my eyes filled with tears and joy, crying heavily because truly the disease deprived me of many things from my life, This is a Miracle, Please do not en-devour to email drtebe2@gmail.com or whatsapp Dr Tebe on +2348140544262 for healings Thanks

    REPLY
  • william Robert
    December 5, 2017, 14:56

    I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the last four years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year, I had faith in God that I would be healed someday.This disease started to circulate all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, a few weeks ago I came on search on the internet if I could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search I saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (Hepatitis B and Cancer) by this Man DR TRUST and she also gave the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so I wrote to DR TRUST telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later I started experiencing changes all over me as the DR assured me that I have cured, after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if I have been finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advice is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email drtrusthelphome@gmail.com sir I am indeed grateful for the help I will forever recommend you to my friends!!! with your lovely Email Address ( drtrusthelphome@gmail.com

    REPLY
    • mrs franca@william Robert
      December 11, 2017, 05:18

      How can I explain this to the world that there is a man who can cure
      HERPES, I was diagnosed for the past 2years I have being into HERPES drug
      since then,so I decide

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      this great man calld Dr ADIZERO telling people about him that this man have
      a cured to HERPES I

      don’t believe that because all I have in mind is HERPES had no cure, thank
      god for my life today am HERPES negative through the power of adazro, I
      contacted this man

      for help because who write about him drop an email of the man I pick the
      email and emailed him for the cure this man told me what to do about the
      cure well am from

      Australia this man cast a curing spell on me and he told me that he will
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      you need his cured just email him now on DRADIZEROCUERCENTER@GMAIL.COM

      or whatsapp +2349073889037 thank you DR i will never stop shearing you
      testimony DOCTOR ADIZERO CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-

      1. HERPES
      2. COPD
      3. CANCER
      4. ALS
      4. Diseases of the heart
      5. Malignant tumors
      6. Cerebrovascular diseases
      6. Diabetes mellitus
      7. Influenza and pneumonia
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      REPLY